An alternative in the treatment of diabetes
Metabolic surgery has proven effective in controlling diabetes for moderately obese patients. Apparently, this is because food does not pass through the first portion of the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum), producing changes in the hormones that control sugar.
While it is true that advances in drug development to control diabetes are important, it has been observed that many patients fail to maintain adequate control. In these cases, metabolic surgery is useful, allowing the remission of diabetes in more than 85% of patients and improvement in the remaining percentage.
What does it consist of?
The concept behind metabolic surgery comes from the practice of surgical intervention to treat obesity, known as gastric bypass, because it was observed that patients undergoing this procedure significantly improved the aggravated conditions they suffered, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia (elevation in Concentration of fat in blood) and metabolic syndrome (inability of the body to use insulin).
Therefore, it is proven that the procedure in question changes the clinical course of diabetes; In fact, follow-up at 16 years shows that patients with diabetes have not only stopped treatment, but the complications of the disease have not occurred.
For this reason, metabolic surgery is the procedure that should be recommended to the patient suffering from obesity and diabetes, because mechanisms that are not yet clearly elucidated generate changes in the secretion of some enzymatic substances that influence the metabolism of sugar.
In addition, it has been demonstrated that the anti-diabetic effect of the surgical technique is of primary type and not the consequence of the patient losing weight, as initially believed. Unlike bariatric surgery or gastric bypass, metabolic surgery can be performed in patients with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of less than 35, since the main goal of treatment is diabetes and not obesity.
The process consists of two types of bypass interventions:
• Gastric. It consists of a reductions in the size of the stomach.
• Duodenal. It excludes the transit of food from the first portions of the small intestine, which causes changes in hormones and receptors located in this area, which has an effect on glycemic control (blood sugar).
In this way, two of the major disorders of the individual with obesity can be overcome, since about 90% of patients are left without apparent diabetes, and a percentage greater than 92% regularize their hypertension when they lose weight.
There are many costs involved in the care and management of diabetes, both related to individuals and to health systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4-5% of health budgets are spent on diabetes-related diseases.
In addition, the medical expenses of a person with diabetes are 2 to 5 times higher than those without the condition. Additionally, there are the intangible or psychosocial costs, being that they have a great impact on the lives of those affected and their families, chief among which are stress, pain, anxiety and the expectation and quality of life, which are deteriorated.
Hence, metabolic surgery represents savings for the candidates around medical consultations, laboratory studies, medications and hospitalizations. But most importantly they improve their quality of life in a significant way, since it prevents the development of complications specific to their illness.
The greatest thing with this intervention is that in days or weeks the patient stops being diabetic (does not need insulin) and the diseases produced by diabetes begin to disappear.
Therefore, once the operation is performed the patient must have a healthy diet, and remember that he was diabetic and that now, thanks to this intervention, he does not have food deprivation and pharmacological de